• Manushya Foundation

The rights of Malayu Muslims must be addressed in Thailand’s 3rd UPR!




Manushya Foundation jointly with the Patani Working Group for Monitoring on International Mechanisms, PerMAS and CAP collaborated on a joint UPR submission ahead of Thailand’s 3rd Universal Periodic Review (UPR) cycle. The submission examines the compliance of Thailand with the recommendations it received during its 2nd UPR cycle in relation to the protection of the rights of Malayu Muslims in the Southern Border Provinces (SBPs).


This is the third time Thailand has undergone review under the UPR. During the 2nd UPR cycle, the Thai government received 2 recommendations directly addressing human rights violations in the SBPs, and 58 recommendations related to Malayu Muslims. Of these, 52 were supported and 6 were noted. As the actions taken by the Government to implement the recommendations have been insufficient and ineffective, the Government has only fully implemented a single recommendation on withdrawing its interpretative declaration on Article 4 of the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. It partially implemented 6, and did not implement 51 of them. Consequently, severe human rights violations persist in the SBPs.


This submission documents Thailand’s treatment of Malayu Muslims, who are facing severe challenges in advancing their human rights. The Thai government has failed to ratify important international human rights instruments such as the Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED), Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OP-CAT).


The Muslim population in Southern Thailand confronts discrimination in their employment, violations of their right to privacy and limited access to effective remedy. Malayu women and children face additional barriers in advancing their rights due to their intersectional identities.

This submission indicates that the Malayu Muslims in the SBPs face severe challenges in advancing their human rights, in the following manner:


  • Section 2 discusses discrimination based on ethnicity and religion, including racial profiling.


  • Section 3 discusses violations of physical integrity rights such as torture, enforced disappearances and arbitrary detention.


  • Section 4 discusses rights violations faced by Malayu women and children as a result of their intersecting identities.


  • Section 5 discusses the Government's unsustainable economic growth putting profit over people.


  • Section 6 discusses the Government’s failure to engage local communities in peace talks.


  • Section 7 discusses difficulties in accessing effective remedy.


  • Section 8 includes recommendations to the Thai government, addressing the challenges and rights violations discussed in foregoing sections.


This submission also provides an annex with an overview of the recommendations examined in this submission, in particular the implementation of 2nd cycle UPR recommendations related to the rights of Malayu Muslims in the SBPs and armed conflict.


Read the joint submission here


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